Prefabrication of composite arteriovenous flaps with implantation of an autologous graft (cartilage) or an alloplastic material (porous polyethylene) was studied in 40 rabbits. Abdominal flaps based on bilateral epigastric pedicles were elevated. An ear cartilage graft or a porous polyethylene implant was inserted under the flap. Two weeks after the operation, 10 flaps with cartilage graft and 10 flaps with porous polyethylene were raised, converted to arteriovenous flaps, and resutured in place in the experimental groups. In the other 20 rabbits of the control groups, the flaps (10 with cartilage graft and 10 with porous polyethylene) were raised and resutured in place as conventional axial flaps. At the end of the second and fourth week postoperatively, samples were obtained from the flap tissues (including a part of the graft or implantation material) and were prepared for histologic examination in all rabbits. The viable areas of all flaps were assessed at the end of fourth week after the second operation. The mean survival rates were 99.4%, 99.7%, 99.5% and 99.8% in the arteriovenous and control flaps prefabricated with cartilage graft and the arteriovenous and control flaps prefabricated with porous polyethylene respectively. The features of wound healing in the experimental and control groups were similar. The study showed that arteriovenous perfusion can nourish a prefabricated flap containing an implanted material (autologous or alloplastic) and these P-week delayed composite flaps have a similar survival rate to delayed prefabricated conventional axial flaps.