Level of Detail Categorization for the Application in Urban Design

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Cudzik J., Aydoğan M., Güler B. E.

Space & FORM, no.55, pp.9-28, 2023 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.21005/pif.2023.55.a-01
  • Journal Name: Space & FORM
  • Journal Indexes: EBSCO Legal Collection
  • Page Numbers: pp.9-28
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Urban planning and urban design involve complex processes that require detailed information about the visual information of a place at various scales. Different graphic tools, such as game engines, are evolving to use urban representation fields. The concept of "level of detail" (LOD) has been used to categorize the level of detail in AEC applications such as BIM and GML for urban representation models. However, there is a need to distinguish between different LOD  concepts commonly used in various fields, as these terms have different interpretations and implications. This article presents a novel approach to re-categorizing the level of detail concept in AEC applications, led by the traditional use of LOD and in parallel with urban planning scales. From an urbanist perspective, a four-stage LOD classification framework has been studied: LOD 1000 for urban and neighbourhood scales, LOD 2000 for the plaza and square scales, LOD 3000 for architectural and street scales, and LOD 4000 for protected and private areas.

Key words: urban representations, Level of Detail (LoD), Level of Development (LOD),  Urban design,
urban planning, Optimization, visual information, AEC.