KZ Sevim, O Silistreli, M Gorgu, O Sevim, B Ergur. Short-term vasculoprotective effects of imatinib mesylate on intimal hyperplasia of arterial anastomosis: An experimental study using a rabbit model. Can J Plast Surg 2012;20(4):223-228. BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the 'microvascular era', the success rates of microvascular procedures have increased to more than 90% in most series. The main reason for failure, however, is the healing of microarterial anastomosis, which is dependent on the status of endothelial cells and affects the rate of arterial thrombosis. In 80% of arterial thrombosis cases, complications are primarily observed during the first 72 h after surgery. Healing of arterial anastomosis results in intimal hyperplasia in which myofibroblasts comprise the predominant cell type. Intimal hyperplasia has been described previously as an adaptive process that occurs in response to hemodynamic stress or injuries to the vascular bed. During wound healing, fibroblasts proliferate, migrate and differentiate into myofibroblasts - a process that takes one to three days. Imatinib mesylate (ST1571-Gleevec, Novartis, Germany) is a specific platelet-derived growth factor receptor blocker that has found use as an adjunct to sirolimus in cardiovascular surgery for restenosis. However, its potential utility in preventing arterial thrombosis in microvascular surgery has not been evaluated in routine plastic surgery practice.