Leptin and apelin are important adipocytokines involved in a variety of endocrine and paracrine functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous leptin and apelin preconditioning on hepatic ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Forty mice were assigned to four groups (n = 10): sham-operated control (sham), I/R injury, I/R + leptin (I/R + L), and I/R + apelin (I/R + A). Leptin 100 mu g/kg/day and apelin 2 mu g/kg/day were delivered intraperitoneally starting 3 days prior to surgical procedure in I/R + L and I/R + A groups, respectively. All I/R groups underwent 45 min of warm ischemia, followed by 30 min of reperfusion. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), liver malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), and liver histopathology were compared between groups. MDA was elevated in I/R, but stayed similar in I/R + L and I/R + A compared to sham. I/R + A had significantly lower MDA compared to I/R. GSH levels did not differ significantly between the groups. ALT and AST were elevated in all I/R groups, but significant reduction was observed in I/R + L and I/R + A compared to I/R. Liver histopathology was mostly mild in I/R + L and I/R + A, in contrast to severe injury observed in the I/R group. Leptin and apelin preconditioning significantly reduced hepatic I/R injury in rats.