Scabiosa atropurpurea L. subsp. maritima (L.) Arc. (Caprifoliaceae) is a plant widely distributed in the Mediterranean region and represented by 32 taxa in the flora of Turkey. In the present study, an in-depth phytochemical investigation of S. atropurpurea methanol extract of the whole plant was carried out using a combination of LC-ESI-FT-MS and NMR analysis. This approach allowed the isolation and structural elucidation of 28 compounds: 17 iridoids, 7 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acids. Among these compounds, three previously unreported iridoids named secologanin-methyl-hemiacetal, atropurpurin A, and atropurpurin B were identified. The methanol extract of S. atropurpurea was assayed for its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activity, showing a potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 100 μg/mL), higher than that exerted by acarbose (IC50 = 196 μg/mL), used as the positive control. Thus, the most abundant iridoids were selected to be tested for their antihyperglycemic activity, and molecular docking experiments were carried out to assess the possibility for selected compounds to form complexes with α-glucosidase enzyme active site.