Bacteremia in the febrile neutropenic patients significantly increases the mortality. It takes a long time to complete the blood culture for the diagnosis of bacteremia. Therefore, quick and specific markers are needed for the prediction of bacteremia. The purpose of this study are to compare the diagnostic value of lactate, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels in a patient with febrile neutropenia, and to evaluate its usefulness in predicting bacteremia. This study was designed to be prospective case-control study. Forty-eight patients and forty control cases aged 18 years or older who were monitored between May 2016 and May 2017 were included in the study. P-value as <0.05 was accepted to be significant. Significantly increased values were determined by the level of inflammatory markers of patients compared to the control group. The highest diagnostic odds ratio were found to be in MCP-1. For patients with febrile neutropenia, CRP (83.3%), and MCP-1 (81.2%) were the most sensitive markers while lactate (85.0%), MCP-1 (75%), and procalcitonin (75%) were the most specific markers. CRP was the only beneficial biomarker in the estimation of bacteremia. No significant results were observed for any biomarker for the prediction of the gram positive/negative discrimination of bacteria in the blood culture. We believe that CRP MCP-1, and lactate levels can be taken into consideration for diagnosis, and CRP can be beneficial in the estimation of bacteremia.