Antimicrobial effect of natural kinds of toothpaste on oral pathogenic bacteria

Demir S., Keskin G., AKAL N., Zer Y.

JOURNAL OF INFECTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, vol.15, no.10, pp.1436-1442, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3855/jidc.14966
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.1436-1442
  • Keywords: Toothpaste, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, Enterococcus faecalis, antimicrobial effect, SALVADORA-PERSICA, CHITOSAN, HEALTH
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: No


Introduction: Because of the adverse effects on human health of some antimicrobial ingredients in traditional toothpaste, consumers are increasingly turning to toothpastes with natural ingredients. This study evaluates the antimicrobial effect of toothpastes containing different natural active agents against three oral pathogens: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Enterococcus faecalis. Methodology: This study tested one traditional toothpaste and seven different natural toothpastes containing theobromine, aloe vera, miswak, propolis, chitosan, enzymes and probiotics. The agar-well diffusion method was used to test the antimicrobial effect. Inhibition zones formed around toothpastes after 24 hours of incubation were measured and the data collected were statistically analyzed. Results: Toothpastes containing theobromine and chitosan and the traditional toothpaste showed antimicrobial efficacy for all tested bacteria. Toothpastes containing aloe vera, miswak, and propolis were only effective on S. mutans, while toothpastes containing probiotics and enzymes did not show any antimicrobial effect on the bacteria. Among toothpastes with natural ingredients, the theobromine-containing toothpaste showed the highest efficacy on S. mutans, while the aloe vera-and propolis-containing toothpastes had the lowest efficacy (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Theobromine-and chitosan-containing toothpastes, which showed antimicrobial activity against all bacteria, can be recommended as alternatives to traditional toothpastes.