Two different nanoparticles with different weight percentages (where x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.0 wt%) have been added to the superconducting system with the general formula Bi1,8Pb0,3Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy + x(A/B) (A = Y2O3 and B = Sb2O3). The samples have been prepared with solid state reaction method. The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the effects of nano-Sb2O3 and nano-Y2O3 addition on the superconductivity, structural, magnetic, and mechanical properties of the system. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), vibrating sample measurement (VSM), DC resistivity–temperature measurement, and Vickers microhardness measurement (VHM) have been made for samples structural characterizations. XRD analysis presented that samples have orthorhombic crystal structure and both Bi-2223 and Bi-2212 phases coexist in the samples. In SEM photographs, granular structure is plate-like and particles are randomly oriented. M–H measurements have been performed at T = 15 K. Using Bean model, critical current densities have been calculated. Calculated J(0) values are 396 kA/cm2 and 232 kA/cm2 for nano-Sb2O3 and nano-Y2O3, respectively. Nano-Sb2O3 additive has been created stronger artificial needling center and higher critical current density than nano-Y2O3. R–T results has showed that nano-Sb2O3 addition increased critical temperature value (range of 109.92 and 112.48 K), while nano-Y2O3 addition decreased (range of 90.53 and 110.68 K). VHM results showed that nano-Y2O3 addition samples have bigger hardness values than nano-Sb2O3 addition samples. Both doping materials increased the mechanical hardness of the system.