Computer-Based Intelligent Solutions for the Diagnosis of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Phenotypes and Chicago Classification 3.0

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DOĞAN Y., Bor S.

HEALTHCARE, no.12, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/healthcare11121790
  • Journal Name: HEALTHCARE
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a multidisciplinary disease; therefore, when treating GERD, a large amount of data needs to be monitored and managed.The aim of our study was to develop a novel automation and decision support system for GERD, primarily to automatically determine GERD and its Chicago Classification 3.0 (CC 3.0) phenotypes. However, phenotyping is prone to errors and is not a strategy widely known by physicians, yet it is very important in patient treatment. In our study, the GERD phenotype algorithm was tested on a dataset with 2052 patients and the CC 3.0 algorithm was tested on a dataset with 133 patients. Based on these two algorithms, a system was developed with an artificial intelligence model for distinguishing four phenotypes per patient. When a physician makes a wrong phenotyping decision, the system warns them and provides the correct phenotype. An accuracy of 100% was obtained for both GERD phenotyping and CC 3.0 in these tests. Finally, since the transition to using this developed system in 2017, the annual number of cured patients, around 400 before, has increased to 800. Automatic phenotyping provides convenience in patient care, diagnosis, and treatment management. Thus, the developed system can substantially improve the performance of physicians.