Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek) seed extract against sodium nitrite toxicity in rats

Atila Uslu G., USLU H., Adali Y.

BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH AND THERAPY, vol.6, no.5, pp.3142-3150, 2019 (ESCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 6 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.15419/bmrat.v6i5.540
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI)
  • Page Numbers: pp.3142-3150
  • Keywords: Hepatotoxicity, Nephrotoxicity, Pro-inflammatory cytokine, Sodium nitrite, Trigonella foenum-graecum, OXIDATIVE STRESS, GARLIC OIL, NITRATE, ANTIOXIDANT, CYTOKINES, SAPONINS, ACID, DIET
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: No


Introduction: Feeding habits and environmental factors may rival genetic susceptibility as etiological factors related to various cancers. Humans are continuously exposed to many synthetic food additives, one of which is sodium nitrite (NaNO2). There is a direct correlation between increases in consumption of nitrite-treated products and incidence of tissue damage, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and some types of cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Trigonella foenurn-graecum (TFG) on NaNO2-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Methods: Forty rats were randomly assigned (10 per group) to control (physiological saline solution), TFG (150 mg/kg/day), NaNO2 (80 mg/kg/day), and NaNO2+TFG (80 mg/kg/day + 150 mg/kg/day) groups. This group was offered TFG seed extract two hours before NaNO2. At the end of three months, the rats were decapitated, and blood, kidney and liver tissues were removed. Results: Three months of oral administration of NaNO2 increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea, creatinine, and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in the liver and kidney tissues [except for liver Interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha)] of rats. Serum AST, ALT, urea, creatinine, liver IL-6, and kidney tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6, IL-1 alpha levels significantly decreased in the NaNO2 +TFG group compared to the NaNO2 group. Pathological examinations, it was determined show that exogenously administered TFG could alleviate the effects of NaNO2 hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Conclusions: Our results suggest that exogenous TFG mitigates NaNO2-administration induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. TFG extract exerted antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and played a significant role in preventing hepatic and renal damage induced by chronic NaNO2 administration.