The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of vitamin D replacement on cognitive function in older adults. A total of 560 patients who underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment including Global cognitive assessment, Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL), and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) twice in 6-month period were retrospectively reviewed. Oral cholecalciferol was replaced to patients with vitamin D deficiency routinely. In baseline cognitive scores, BADL-IADL scores were lower in the severe deficiency group than in the deficiency and adequate groups (P < .05). With regard to the relation between changes in cognitive functions, BADL-IADL scores on the 6-month versus baseline, no difference was determined in patients with and without dementia (P > .05). Vitamin D replacement may not improve cognitive performance in older adults, even if vitamin D is raised to adequate level, suggesting that longer term replacement therapy may be needed to improve cognitive function.