Tülek S., Timur E.

12th International İstanbul Scientific Research Congress on Life, Engineering, an Applied Sciences, İstanbul, Turkey, 21 - 23 January 2023, pp.154-161

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • City: İstanbul
  • Country: Turkey
  • Page Numbers: pp.154-161
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Today, it has become important to determine the location of buried materials in archaeological sites with non-destructive methods. At this point, the use of shallow geophysical methods is a priority. In shallow geophysical methods, it is possible to find both economical and fast solutions to determine the locations of sarcophagi, walls, roads and similar archaeological elements in an existing archaeological area. In recent years, archaeologists have resorted to non-destructive geophysical methods to map the area, narrow the search area, and locate existing objects before the excavations. The main undamaged geophysical methods used in archaeological searches are Ground penetrating radar (GPR), Electrical resistivity tomography method (ERT) and magnetics. There are a wide range of GPR applications including: assessing critical infrastructure such as bridges and roads, locating buried utilities, mapping glaciers, finding anti-personnel landmines, and detecting tumours in the human body. In this study, GPR measurements were performed using Proceq GS8000 GPR equipment along 20 profiles at the Yassıtepe archaeological site in the city of İzmir. The device takes measurements in the 40-3440 MHZ frequency band and information can be obtained up to a depth of 10 meters. In data processing stages, firstly forward modelling was made using Python based gprMax, an open source software that simulates electromagnetic wave propagation, for 3 different geometrical models. The software uses Maxwell’s equations in 3D using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) algorithm. After that, horizontal amplitude maps were prepared by using 2D inversion and the results were compared. In conclusion, the maps obtained as a result of the inverse solution and the synthetic models obtained using the gprMax software were compared, and it is determined that the observed and theoretical outcomes give similar results. An area is proposed for excavation.