Three different pre-treatment methods were applied on two different anaerobic sludge cultures and their mixtures in order to investigate the effects of pre-treatment methods on bio-hydrogen production from dark fermentation of waste ground wheat solution. Repeated heat, chloroform and combinations of heat and chloroform pre-treatment methods were applied to anaerobic sludges from different sources. Repeated heat treatment (2 x 5 h) was found to be more effective in selecting hydrogen producing bacteria compared to the other treatment methods tested on the basis of cumulative hydrogen production. The highest hydrogen formation (652 ml) and specific hydrogen production rate (SHPR = 25.7 ml H-2 g(-1) cells h(-1)) were obtained with the anaerobic sludge pre-treated by repeated boiling. Both the type of anaerobic sludge and the pre-treatment method had considerable effects on bio-hydrogen production from wheat powder solution (WPS) by dark fermentation, (c) 2009 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.