Evaluation of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Cases at a Tertiary Level Hospital in Izmir, Turkey

Atalay S., Ece G., Samlioglu P., Maras G., Kose I., Kose Ş.

MIKROBIYOLOJI BULTENI, vol.46, no.4, pp.553-559, 2012 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 46 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.553-559
  • Keywords: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, nosocomial infection, surveillance culture, GeneXpert system, NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS, COLONIZATION, EPIDEMIOLOGY, LIVER
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: No


Vancomycin-resistant enterocococci (VRE) are common pathogens that may lead to infection in intensive care units. VRE strains that colonize the hospital environment can stay alive for a long time on fomites and can easily be spread by the hands of hospital staff and by the instruments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemic and sporadic VRE cases, following an epidemic at anesthesiology intensive care unit (ICU). The records of the patients hospitalized at anesthesiology ICU between October 2010-June 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. The hospitalized patients with VRE positive culture reports were included in this study. Rectal swab samples of the patients and environmental surveillance cultures were inoculated on sheep blood agar and enterococcosel agar media and incubated for 24-48 hours. The isolated strains were identified by conventional methods and automatized Vitek 2.0 system (BioMerieux, France). The molecular detection of VRE was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (Cepheid GeneXpert System, USA). A total of 19 VRE colonised or infected cases (11 male, 8 female; age range: 18-96 years, mean age: 60 years) that were detected sporadically or during the epidemic, were included in this study. Ten (52.6%) cases were evaluated as colonization (seven rectal, two urinary and one both urinary and rectal colonisation). Nine patients were considered as infected (five bacteremia, three catheter infections and one urinary tract infection). Five of the nine patients directly progressed to infection. Four of the nine patients progressed to infection after rectal colonization. Eight of the infected cases were treated with daptomycin and one case with linezolid. Five of the infected and treated cases died and the rate of mortality was determined as 55.6%. PCR was applied to the samples of eight cases and vanA was detected in seven of these. VRE were not grown in two of the PCR positive samples and one PCR positive sample did not yield VRE growth in culture. VRE were detected from the samples obtained from patients' monitors, infusion sets, bedside, bedstands and walls and the origin of VRE was thought to be environmental contamination. It was concluded that adherence to infection control guidelines and continuous education of the health-care personel were prerequisites for effective control of VRE colonization and infection in the health-care setting.