Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate a possible association between vitamin D deficiency and diabetic peripheral neuropathy in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.& nbsp;Materials-methods: Twenty-nine patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 19 healthy controls were included to the study. All individuals were evaluated for diabetic peripheral neuropathy with nerve conduction studies. Complete blood cell count, biochemical investigations, serum vitamin D levels, hemoglobin A1c levels were recorded.& nbsp;Results: No statistically significant differences between the diabetes and control groups in terms of gender, age, body weight, height, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, laboratory investigations, serum vitamin D levels and nerve conduction studies was found. Patients with diabetes were grouped as patients with normal serum vitamin D levels and patients with vitamin D deficiency. Sensory nerve action potential of sural nerve and motor peroneal nerve velocity were statistically significantly lower in diabetic patients with vitamin D deficiency compared to diabetic patients with normal vitamin D levels (p 0.009 and 0.005 respectively).& nbsp;Conclusion: Our results suggested that hypovitaminosis D might lead to development of neuropathic changes particularly on the lower limb nerves even in the early stages of the disease. It should be kept in mind that patients with hypovitaminosis D should be elaborately examined and closely followed up for the development of diabetic neuropathic changes, even if glucose control is achieved.(C) 2022 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Japanese Society of Child Neurology.