Thrombotic microangiopathy should be suspected every time the combination of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia without a coexisting cause, thrombocytopenia as well as renal and/or neurologic abnormalities occurs. The general term thrombotic microangiopathy includes different subtypes of the disease leading to abnormalities in multiple organ systems by endothelial injury and formation of platelet-rich thrombi in small vessels. The main types include thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in case of dominant neurologic abnormalities and the hemolytic uremic syndrome in case of acute kidney injury, respectively. Although these syndromes differ in their etiologies, clinical features, response to treatment, and prognosis, an early initiation of a direct therapeutic intervention frequently determines the clinical course of the patient. Irrespectively of the underlying etiology, plasma exchange is an essential component of acute therapeutic intervention while ongoing diagnostics are used to identify the definite treatment.