Hepatic Cysts Reappraisal of the Classification, Terminology, Differential Diagnosis, and Clinicopathologic Characteristics in 258 Cases


Armutlu A., Quigley B., Choi H., Basturk O., Akkas G., Pehlivanoglu B., ...More

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, vol.46, no.9, pp.1219-1233, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 46 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1097/pas.0000000000001930
  • Journal Name: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.1219-1233
  • Keywords: hepatic cysts, liver cysts, biliary cystadenoma, biliary cystadenocarcinoma, neoplasia, DUCTAL PLATE MALFORMATION, OVARIAN-TYPE STROMA, HEPATOBILIARY CYSTADENOMA, BILIARY CYSTADENOMA, PAPILLARY NEOPLASMS, LIVER, MANAGEMENT, CYSTADENOCARCINOMA, HAMARTOMAS, PANCREAS
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

The literature on liver cysts is highly conflicting, mostly owing to definitional variations. Two hundred and fifty-eight >= 1 cm cysts evaluated pathologically using updated criteria were classifiable as: I. Ductal plate malformation related (63%); that is, cystic bile duct hamartoma or not otherwise specified-type benign biliary cyst (35 with polycystic liver disease). These were female predominant (F/M=2.4), large (10 cm), often multifocal with degenerative/inflammatory changes and frequently misclassified as "hepatobiliary cystadenoma." II. Neoplastic (13%); 27 (10.5%) had ovarian-type stroma (OTS) and qualified as mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) per World Health Organization (WHO). These were female, solitary, mean age 52, mean size 11 cm, and 2 were associated with carcinoma (1 in situ and 1 microinvasive). There were 3 intraductal papillary neoplasms, 1 intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm, 1 cystic cholangiocarcinoma, and 2 cystic metastasis. III. Infectious/inflammatory (12%). These included 23 hydatid cysts (including 2 Echinococcus alveolaris both misdiagnosed preoperatively as cancer), nonspecific inflammatory cysts (abscesses, inflammatory cysts: 3.4%). IV. Congenital (7%). Mostly small (<3 cm); choledochal cyst (5%), foregut cyst (2%). V. Miscellaneous (4%). In conclusion, hepatic cysts occur predominantly in women (3/1), are mostly (90%) non-neoplastic, and seldom (<2%) malignant. Cystic bile duct hamartomas and their relative not otherwise specified-type benign biliary cysts are frequently multifocal and often misdiagnosed as "cystadenoma/carcinoma." Defined by OTS, MCNs (the true "hepatobiliary cystadenoma/carcinoma") are solitary, constitute only 10.5% of hepatic cysts, and have a significantly different profile than the impression in the literature in that essentially all are perimenopausal females, and rarely associated with carcinoma (7%). Since MCNs can only be diagnosed by demonstration of OTS through complete microscopic examination, it is advisable to avoid the term "cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma" solely based on radiologic examination, and the following simplified terminology would be preferable in preoperative evaluation to avoid conflicts with the final pathologic diagnosis: (1) noncomplex (favor benign), (2) complex (in 3 subsets, as favor benign, cannot rule out malignancy, or favor malignancy), (3) malignant features.