The effects of increasing nitrobenzene (NB) concentrations and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the performance of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) were studied. In the first step the NB concentration was increased from 30 to 700 mg/L at constant COD and flowrates. Maximum COD removal efficiencies in ABR varied between 88-92% as NB concentrations increased from 30 to 210 mg/L. After this dose, COD removal efficiency decreased to 85 and 79% at NB concentrations of 550 and 700 mg/L, respectively. Removal efficiencies of NEI were nearly 100% for all NB concentrations in ABR reactor effluent. In the second step, COD and NB concentrations were kept constant while HRT decreased from 10.38 days to 1 day. As HRT decreased from 10.38 to 2.5 days the COD removal efficiencies in the anaerobic and anaerobic/aerobic reactor effluents were 92-94% and 97-98%, respectively. As HRT decreased from 2.5 days to 1 day COD removal efficiencies in the anaerobic and anaerobic/aerobic reactor effluents decreased to 83 and 95%, respectively. This study showed that HRT is a more important operation parameter than increasing NB concentration in ABR /CSTR sequential reactor system. Although ABR/CSTR system exhibited good COD and NB removal efficiencies, the lower HRTs slightly decreased the removal efficiencies compared to increasing NB concentration.