Contribution of Oxides, Salt, and Carbonate to the Sonication of Some Hydrophobic Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons and Toxicity in Petrochemical Industry Wastewater in Izmir, Turkey


SPONZA D. T., Oztekin R.

JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING, vol.137, no.11, pp.1012-1025, 2011 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 137 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2011
  • Doi Number: 10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0000428
  • Journal Name: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1012-1025
  • Keywords: CaCl2, FeO, Al2O3, Na2CO3, Dissolved oxygen, Acute toxicity, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, H2O2, Pyrolytic, OH center dot, POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS, SONOCHEMICAL DEGRADATION, ULTRASONIC DEGRADATION, ORGANIC-COMPOUNDS, ACETIC-ACID, OXIDATION, PAHS, DECOMPOSITION, TEMPERATURE, CAVITATION
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

The effects of increasing sonication time (60-150 min), calcium chloride (CaCl2; 1-10 g/L), ferrous oxide (FeO; 2-10 mg/L), aluminium oxide (Al2O3; 2-10 mg/L), and Na2CO3 (2-12 mg/L) on the destruction of six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and acute toxicity in a petrochemical industry wastewater in Izmir (Turkey) were investigated at a sonication intensity and a frequency of 51.48 W/cm(2) and 35 kHz, respectively. The contribution of 4-6 mg/L CaCl2 to the yields in more hydrophobic PAHs [(benz[a]pyrene (BaP) and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcdP)] was low (6-8%), whereas it was high (21-26%) in less hydrophobic PAHs [acenaphthene (ACT), fluoranthene (FL), benz[a]anthracene (BaA), benz[k]fluoranthene (BkF)] at 30 degrees C after 150 min sonication. 8 g/L Na2CO3 suppressed the removal of less hydrophobic PAHs (90-96%) although it did not contribute to the yields of more hydrophobic PAHs at 30 degrees C after 150 min sonication. 6 g/L Al2O3 and 8 g/L FeO increased both less (E = 93-95%) and more (E = 90-94%) hydrophobic PAH yields. The reason for the decrease in BkF and BaA yields at long sonication time (150 min) was the reformation of these PAHs from their by-products namely, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, benzoic acid, Fluoranthene (FL), and Anthracene (ANT). Hydroxylation is the major process for complete sono-degradation of less hydrophobic ACT, FL, BaA, and BkF, whereas the pyrolytic process is the major path for complete degradation of BaP and IcdP. The maximum acute toxicity removal (98%) was provided by 4 g/L CaCl2, 4 mg/L Na2CO3, 4 mg/L FeO, and 8 mg/LAl2O3 after 150 min of sonication time at 30 degrees C. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000428. (C) 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.