Modeling of kappa factor using multivariate adaptive regression splines: application to the western Türkiye ground motion dataset

Kurtulmuş T. Ö., Yerlikaya–Özkurt F., Askan Gündoğan A.

NATURAL HAZARDS, vol.1, no.1, pp.1-28, 2024 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 1 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11069-024-06535-y
  • Journal Name: NATURAL HAZARDS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Environment Index, Geobase, INSPEC, Metadex, PAIS International, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, DIALNET, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-28
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


The recent seismic activity on Türkiye’s west coast, especially in the Aegean Sea region, shows that this region requires further attention. The region has significant seismic hazards because of its location in an active tectonic regime of North–South extension with multiple basin structures on soft soil deposits. Recently, despite being 70 km from the earthquake source, the Samos event (with a moment magnitude of 7.0 on October 30, 2020) caused significant localized damage and collapse in the Izmir city center due to a combination of basin effects and structural susceptibility. Despite this activity, research on site characterization and site response modeling, such as local velocity models and kappa estimates, remains sparse in this region. Kappa values display regional characteristics, necessitating the use of local kappa estimations from previous earthquake data in region–specific applications. Kappa estimates are multivariate and incorporate several characteristics such as magnitude and distance. In this study, we assess and predict the trend in mean kappa values using three–component strong–ground motion data from accelerometer sites with known VS30 values throughout western Türkiye. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) were used to build the prediction models. The effects of epicentral distance Repi, magnitude Mw, and site class (VS30) were investigated, and the contributions of each parameter were examined using a large dataset containing recent seismic activity. The models were evaluated using well–known statistical accuracy criteria for kappa assessment. In all performance measures, the MARS model outperforms the MLR model across the selected sites.