High-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete is an economical and durable option for structural as well as general concreting purposes, if properly controlled ashes are employed. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of the use of three types of Turkish fly ashes from different sources in cost effective high-volume fly ash concrete production. For this purpose HVFA concrete mixtures were prepared by substituting 40, 50, 60 and 70% of cement by fly ash. The mechanical properties and material costs of mixtures were compared with conventional concrete at the same strength grade at 28 days. It should be noted that as an additional benefit, the long-term strength development and durability advantageous of HVFA concrete is not taken into consideration in cost analysis. Results showed that for structural applications a technically suitable and cost effective HVFA concrete can only be produced by using the fly ashes within the limits of specific chemical and physical properties. It may be possible to use other fly ashes with rehabilitation and pre-process, which may reduce the economical feasibility of fly ash usage. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.