In this report, hemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS) was defined pathologically for the first time in Turkey in a Holstein dairy cow. It was reported that a 4-year-old cow died suddenly with symptoms of loss of appetite, decreased milk yield, dehydration, and abdominal bloating in a dairy farm. Grossly, serosa of jejunum was observed with dark red color and its lumen was completely filled with blood clots. Some parts of jejunum lumen were narrowed due to submucosal and intramural bleeding. Microscopically, necro-hemorrhagic enteritis, and eosinophilic granulocyte and mononuclear cell infiltrations with extensive submucosal hemorrhages were observed. In addition, Gram-positive, rod-shaped and endospore-forming bacteria were seen intensively around of bleeding areas in the lamina propria. The death was concluded to be associated with HBS by macroscopic and microscopic findings, characteristic for the syndrome and in accordance with the literature evaluating this case. HBS causes significant losses in dairy cattle in many countries of the world. This report aimed to point out the importance of the topic, which is the first case report of HBS in Turkey, where dairy cow enterprises are growing rapidly.