Source, degree and potential health risk of metal(loid)s contamination on the water and soil in the Soke Basin, Western Anatolia, Turkey

Küçüksümbül A., Akar A. T., Tarcan G.

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT, vol.194, no.1, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 194 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10661-021-09670-2
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, ABI/INFORM, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, Greenfile, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Enrichment factor, Human health risk assessment, Potential ecological risk, Soil contamination, Soke basin, Water contamination, HEAVY-METAL CONTAMINATION, BUYUK MENDERES GRABEN, DRINKING-WATER, TRACE-ELEMENTS, BLACKFOOT DISEASE, SURFACE SEDIMENTS, ENRICHMENT FACTOR, BORON POLLUTION, ECOLOGICAL RISK, THERMAL WATERS
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Water and soil quality are the two most important parameters for sustainable agriculture and regional development in the basin. This study focused on the causes of soil and water contamination and the potential impact of drinking water on community health. Reasons for metal(loid)s enrichment in the water and soil in the Soke Basin were examined by considering anthropogenic and geogenic inputs. Four rock samples in the drainage network, 28 soil samples, and 29 water samples in the Soke Plain were collected. All samples were analyzed for metal(loid)s by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects of water on human health were calculated mathematically. Potential ecological risk index (PERI), enrichment factor (EF), and ecological risk (ER) were calculated for the soil samples. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation and Kaiser normalization was applied to the soil data set. Cr, Ni, and Cd contamination in soils was associated with anthropogenic inputs, while arsenic contamination was related to both anthropogenic and geogenic inputs. As, B, Ba, Pb, and Sb contamination was found in some drinking water. As contamination has been clearly found to be caused by natural geological processes in and around Lake Azap. It was determined that metal(loid)s enrichment occurred in drinking water due to the mixing of geothermal waters affected by seawater intrusion with surface and groundwater. Contamination inputs were geogenic, but their negative impacts appearing in surface water and drinking water occurred due to human influence.