Physically Crosslinked Chondroitin Sulfate (CS)–Metal Ion (M: Fe(III), Gd(III), Zn(II), and Cu(II)) Particles for Versatile Applications and Their Biosafety

Suner S. S., Sahiner M., Umut E., Ayyala R. S., Sahiner N.

PHARMACEUTICALS, vol.16, no.4, pp.1-15, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 16 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/ph16040483
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-15
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a well-known glycosaminoglycan, was physically crosslinked with Fe(III), Gd(III), Zn(II), and Cu(II) ions to obtain CS-Fe(III), CS-Gd(III), CS-Zn(II), and CS-Cu(II) polymeric particles for multipurpose biological applications. The CS–metal ion-containing particles in the micrometer to a few hundred nanometer size range are injectable materials for intravenous administration. The CS–metal ion-containing particles are safe biomaterials for biological applications because of their perfect blood compatibility and no significant cytotoxicity on L929 fibroblast cells up to a 10 mg/mL concentration. Furthermore, CS-Zn(II) and CS-Cu(II) particles show excellent antibacterial susceptibility, with 2.5–5.0 mg/mL minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, the in vitro contrast enhancement abilities of aqueous CS–metal ion particle suspensions in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were determined by obtaining T1- and T2-weighted MR images using a 0.5 Tesla MRI scanner and by calculating the water proton relaxivities. Therefore, these CS-Fe(III), CS-Gd(III), CS-Zn(II), and CS-Cu(II) particles have significant potential as antibacterial additive materials and MRI contrast enhancement agents with less toxicity.