The effects of low frequency cold plasma treatments on the microstructure and chemistry of Polyethylene (PE) have been investigated. PE plates and fibers were exposed to plasmas of argon and oxygen gases. The surface wettabilities of plasma-treated plates were monitored. Possible physical changes on fiber surfaces were observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at micrometer scale and by an atomic force microscope (AFM) at nanometer scale after this process. The effects of plasma treatment on surface chemistry of PE fibers have been analyzed by using an X-ray photoemission spectroscope (XPS). The fibers modified by plasma treatments were used in prismatic cementitious composites. The flexural performance of samples were characterized at two different ages (28 days and 8 months). Results showed that plasma treatment caused significant modifications on fibers' surface structure and composites' performance. Proper plasma treatment conditions significantly leads to improvement of multiple cracking behavior of fiber reinforced composites. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.