Health effects associated with smokeless tobacco: a systematic review

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Critchley J., ÜNAL B.

THORAX, vol.58, no.5, pp.435-443, 2003 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 58 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2003
  • Doi Number: 10.1136/thorax.58.5.435
  • Journal Name: THORAX
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.435-443
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Background: It is believed that health risks associated with smokeless tobacco (ST) use are lower than those with cigarette smoking. A systematic review was therefore carried out to summarise these risks.