Objective: To investigate the value of presepsin and proadrenomedullin (proADM) as new markers for febrile neutropenia, by comparing them with conventional markers. Methods: Plasma specimens for presepsin, proADM, C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin (PCT) were collected every 3 days during each episode of febrile neutropenia. Results: A total of 39 patients experiencing a collective 47 episodes of febrile neutropenia with hematological malignant neoplasms, as well as 40 healthy control patients without infectious disease, were enrolled in this study. Levels of the studied analytes in the presepsin 1 group (with baseline values taken at admission), presepsin 2 group (values recorded on the 3rd day of febrile neutropenia), and presepsin 3 group (values recorded on the 6th day of hospitalization) were all higher in the subgroups with bacteremia. C-reactive protein 1 (baseline value taken at admission), procalcitonin 1 (as recorded at admission), and procalcitonin 2 (recorded on the 3rd day of febrile neutropenia) were higher in the subroups with bacteremia (P =.03, P =. 04, and P =. 04, respectively). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, presepsin 1 and/or PCT 1/CRP 1 combined analysis was superior in predicting bacteremia. Conclusion: Presepsin could be used in combination with other biomarkers to detect bacteremia.