Phase formation and microstructure of Nd+3 doped Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O-3 prepared by sol-gel method

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Sakar-Deliormanli A., Ceilk E., Polat M.

JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE-MATERIALS IN ELECTRONICS, vol.19, no.6, pp.577-583, 2008 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the rare earth element neodymium on the phase formation and microstructural development of relaxor ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate, Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O-3 (PMN) system. Perovskite phase PMN powders were prepared using the sol-gel method and the effect of neodymium doping was investigated at different doping levels ranging from 0.1 mol% to 30 mol%. The precursors employed in the sol-gel process were lead (II) acetate, magnesium ethoxide, and niobium (V) ethoxide. All the experiments were performed at room temperature while the calcination temperatures ranged between 800 degrees C and 1,100 degrees C. Results showed that it was possible to obtain the pure perovskite phase at 950 degrees C using the sol-gel method. Nd+3 addition influenced the phase formation and microstructure of the multicomponent system. Pyrochlore was detected along with the perovskite phase above 10 mol% Nd. Results also demonstrated that grain size of the synthesized powders depended on the Nd+3 concentration.