Leadership Power Perceptions of Soccer Coaches and Soccer Players According to Their Education

Konter E.

JOURNAL OF HUMAN KINETICS, vol.34, pp.141-148, 2012 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 34
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.2478/v10078-012-0073-x
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.141-148
  • Keywords: perception of leadership power, soccer coaches, soccer players, education
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: No


The purpose of this study was to analyze the leadership power perceptions of soccer coaches and soccer players according to their educational levels. Data were collected from 165 male soccer coaches and 870 male soccer players. Adapted versions of the "Power in Soccer Questionnaire-Other", the "Power in Soccer Questionnaire-Self" and an "information form" were used for data collection, and collected data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney Tests. Analysis of the Power in Soccer Questionnaire-Other revealed significant differences between soccer players' level of education and their perception of Coercive Power (p<.003), and no significant differences related to Referent Power, Legitimate Power and Expert Power. Analysis of the Power in Soccer Questionnaire-Self also revealed the only significant difference between coaches' level of education and their perception of Legitimate Power (p<.001), and no significant differences with regard to others. Different perception of leadership powers between coaches and players might create communication and performance problems in soccer.