Feasibility and mixture performance assessment of waste oil based rejuvenators in high-RAP asphalt mixtures

KAYA ÖZDEMİR D., Aghazadeh Dokandari P., Raufi H., TOPAL A., ŞENGÖZ B.

Materials Research Express, vol.10, no.4, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 10 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1088/2053-1591/accd3e
  • Journal Name: Materials Research Express
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Chemical Abstracts Core, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: cost-benefit ratio, feasibility, indirect tensile strength, recycled asphalt mixtures, rejuvenator, waste engine oil, waste vegetable oil
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Asphalt pavements are amongst the most recycled materials in the contemporary world depending on the environmental and financial advantages. The introduction of Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) on newly produced asphalt pavement is possible by the utilization of rejuvenating agents, which should contain oily fractions. For this purpose, within the scope of this study, three types of agents with optimum amounts (by weight of bitumen) were utilized 5.4% Waste Engine Oil (WEO), 5.1% Waste Vegetable Oil (WVO), and 6.8% Commercial Rejuvenating Agent (CRA). The highest applicable RAP content in mixtures depends on the rejuvenator type determined by Marshall Mix Design tests (air voids, flow, and stability). Rejuvenation facilitated the use of 50 to 60% of additional RAP material in the mixtures depending on the rejuvenator type. Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) test results declared that RAP mixtures, when subjected to the rejuvenation process, resulted in relatively less brittleness and enhanced durability properties compared to the unmodified ones. Additionally, cost comparison analyses demonstrated encouraging results as the cost-benefit ratio exceeded up to 55% for mixtures involving high percentages of rejuvenated RAP. As a final analysis, Return on Investment (ROI) values were calculated for each rejuvenator type by the cost of upgrading the facility to handle RAP and the profit of RAP usage. Consequently, ROI was calculated as a return time in months, which unveils an extremely profitable opportunity in the industry.