A Novel Machine Learning Approach: Soil Temperature Ordinal Classification (STOC)


KÜÇÜK C., BİRANT D., TAŞER P. Y.

JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES-TARIM BILIMLERI DERGISI, vol.28, no.4, pp.635-649, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 28 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.15832/ankutbd.866045
  • Journal Name: JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES-TARIM BILIMLERI DERGISI
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.635-649
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Soil temperature prediction is an important task since soil temperature plays an important role in agriculture and land use. Although some progress has been made in this area, the existing methods provide a regression or nominal classification task. However, ordinal classification is yet to be explored. To bridge the gap, this paper proposes a novel approach: Soil Temperature Ordinal Classification (STOC), which considers the relationships between the class labels during soil temperature level prediction. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the STOC method using five different traditional machine learning methods (Decision Tree, Naive Bayes, K-Nearest Neighbors, Support Vector Machines, and Random Forest) was applied on daily values of meteorological and soil data obtained from 16 stations in three states (Utah, Alabama, and New Mexico) of United States at five soil depths (2, 4, 8, 20, and 40 inches) between the years of 2011 and 2020. The experiments show that the proposed STOC approach is an efficient method for soil temperature level (very low, low, medium, high, and very high) prediction. The applied STOC models (STOC.DT, STOC.NB, STOC.KNN, STOC.SVM, and STOC.RF) showed average accuracy rates of 90.95%, 77.09%, 90.84%, 89.94%, and 90.91% on the experimental datasets, respectively. It was observed from the experimental results that the STOC.DT method achieved the best soil temperature level prediction among the others.