Alzheimer's disease is a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which is the most common cause of dementia worldwide. Although amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are identified as the hallmarks of the disease, the only valid diagnostic method yet is post-mortem imaging of these molecules in brain sections. Exosome is a type of extracellular vesicles secreted into extracellular space and plays fundamental roles in healthy and pathological conditions, including cell-to-cell communication. In this study, we aimed to investigate the proteomic contents of neuron-derived exosomes (NDEs) from AD patients and healthy controls (HCs) to identify a possible marker for AD diagnosis. We identified alpha-globin, beta-globin, and delta-globin increase in neuron-derived exosomes of AD patients compared to HCs with LC-MS/MS proteomics analysis. Then, we confirmed the high hemoglobin (Hb) level in NDEs of AD patients with ELISA. We found the area under the curve of hemoglobin level as 0.6913 with ROC analysis. Cargo proteins of NDEs may be useful diagnostic biomarker for AD.