Vitamin D requirements and supplementation during pregnancy Gebelikte D vitamini gereksinimi ve desteklenmesi


TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin, vol.12, no.5, pp.597-604, 2013 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 12 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.5455/pmb.1-1346410426
  • Journal Name: TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.597-604
  • Keywords: Pregnancy, Vitamin D, Vitamin D requirements
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin. Vitamin D exists in two forms; vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). Vitamin D3 is produced in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol when the skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Vitamin D2 is obtained only from nutrients. Approximately 90% of body's vitamin D requirements are met by the sun exposure, 10 % by the food. Vitamin D status is measured by the circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. A blood level of 25(OH)D <20 ng/ml is considered to be vitamin D deficiency, whereas a level 21-29 ng/ml is insufficient. Vitamin D deficiency is an important public health problem. Prolonged vitamin D deficiency causes rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. In addition, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of chronic and degenerative diseases such as cancer, autoimmune and infectious diseases, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. In Turkey, there is great variability (46% - 80%) in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency according to studies. Lifestyle, nutritional and environmental factors are responsible for the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Turkey. In pregnancy, vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency affects both mother and infant health. During pregnancy, vitamin D requirements should be met for the placenta, the fetus, and the health of the mother. In conclusion, vitamin D status in pregnant women can be improved by sun exposure, improving dietary intake, and vitamin D supplementation.