Effects of virtual reality on pain, fear and anxiety during blood draw in children aged 5-12 years old: A randomised controlled study


ÖZALP GERÇEKER G., AYAR D., ÖZDEMİR E. Z., BEKTAŞ M.

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, vol.29, pp.1151-1161, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 29
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/jocn.15173
  • Journal Name: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Abstracts in Social Gerontology, AgeLine, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Psycinfo, Public Affairs Index
  • Page Numbers: pp.1151-1161
  • Keywords: anxiety, blood draw, child, fear, pain, virtual reality, DISTRACTION METHODS, PROCEDURAL PAIN, STATE ANXIETY, VENIPUNCTURE, MANAGEMENT, DISTRESS, EFFICACY, THERAPY, RELIEF, MUSIC
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Aim and objectives Virtual reality (VR) can be used during painful procedures in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different VR methods on procedure-related pain, fear and anxiety of children aged 5-12 years old during blood draw. Methods This randomised controlled study used parallel trial design guided by the CONSORT checklist, see Supporting Information. The sample of children (n = 136) was allocated to the VR-Rollercoaster (n = 45), VR-Ocean Rift (n = 45) and control group (n = 46) using blocked randomisation. The primary outcome was pain scores after the blood draw and fear and anxiety scores before and after the blood draw. Before the blood draw, fear and anxiety scores were assessed using self-report and reports from the parents and the researcher using the Child Fear Scale and Children's Anxiety Meter. After the blood draw, level of pain experienced was assessed using the Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale and the fear and anxiety levels experienced by the children during the blood draw were re-evaluated. Results Pain scores were found to be lower in the VR-Rollercoaster group and the VR-Ocean Rift group. A statistical difference was found between groups according to self-, parent- and researcher-reported fear and anxiety scores after blood draw. While being in VR-Rollercoaster and VR-Ocean Rift group reduced children's fear and anxiety, being in the control group increased fear levels by 20% and anxiety levels by 34.1%. Conclusions VR is an effective method in reducing procedure-related pain, fear and anxiety in children aged 5-12 years old during blood draw. Relevance to clinical practice Evidence-based guidelines and protocols should be created for nonpharmacological methods such as VR for procedural pain and anxiety in children.