An estimation of shipping emissions to analysing air pollution density in the Izmir Bay

Töz A. C., Büber M., Köseoğlu B., Şakar C.

AIR QUALITY ATMOSPHERE AND HEALTH, vol.14, no.1, pp.69-81, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11869-020-00914-7
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Geobase, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.69-81
  • Keywords: Geographic information system (GIS), Izmir Bay, Ship emissions, Bottom-up methodology, Air pollution, Point density analysis, INVENTORY, PORT, SEA, EXTERNALITIES, TRANSPORT, EUROPE, REGION, ENERGY, COSTS
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


The city of Izmir is one of the most polluted provinces in Turkey. The purpose of the research is to identify the risky areas in terms of air pollution using the emission density distribution data from ships called at Port of Alsancak in 2018. A geographic information system (GIS)-based emission inventory model was used to examine spatial changes in emissions in the Izmir Bay. Initially, by the bottom-up method, 187 movements from 41 ships combined have been evaluated. A spatial distribution map of air pollutants was then compiled using the point density analysis in GIS. The analysis revealed that SO2, NOX, CO2, PM(10)and HC emissions from ships were identified as 334.5 t, 398.9 t, 19653 t, 37.4 t and 27 t, respectively. Besides, the research revealed that container ships accounted for the largest share (similar to 91.3%) of all emissions. In conclusion, the highest emissions were recorded in Port of Alsancak and inner bay due to long hoteling periods. The port area was determined as the riskiest region that threatens public health. The study recommends emission reduction strategies such as replacement of ships' source of energy in ports (e.g. cold ironing) and increase usage of green fuels.