Numerical simulations of landslide-stabilizing piles: a remediation project in Soke, Turkey

KAHYAOĞLU M. R., Imanch G., ÖZDEN G., Kayalar A. S.

ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, vol.76, no.19, 2017 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 76 Issue: 19
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12665-017-6989-7
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Keywords: Landslide remediation, Passive piles, Soil-structure interaction, Arching mechanism, Relative movement of adjacent piles, LATERAL SOIL MOVEMENTS, DRILLED SHAFTS, SLOPE, DESIGN
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


A catastrophic landslide following a rainy season occurred in the backyard of a school building in Soke, Turkey. The landslide caused property damage and adversely affected the present forest cover. Immediately after the landslide, double-row stabilizing piles were designed and constructed based on the findings of two-dimensional (2D) finite element (FE) analyses to take an urgent precaution. To remedy the problem, pile displacements were monitored using inclinometers, and it was observed that the measured displacements were greater than the values calculated in the design stage. Accordingly, two different three-dimensional (3D) numerical FE models were used in tandem with the inclinometer data to determine the load transfer mechanism. In the first model, numerical analyses were made to predict the pile displacements, and while the model predicted successfully the displacement of the piles constructed in the middle with reasonable accuracy, it failed for the corner piles. In the second model, the soil load transfer between piles was determined considering the sliding mass geometry, the soil arching mechanism and the group interaction between adjacent piles. The results of the second model revealed that the middle piles with large displacements transferred their loads to the corner piles with smaller displacements. The generated soil loads, perpendicular to the sliding direction, restricted pile deformations and piles with less displacement were subjected to greater loads due to the bowl-shaped landslide. A good agreement between the computed pile displacements and inclinometer data indicates that the existing soil pressure theories should be improved considering the position of the pile in the sliding mass, the depth and deformation modulus of stationary soil, the relative movement between the soil and piles and the relative movement of adjacent piles.