Purpose: Intimal thickening, which results from the response to arterial damage caused by therapeutic interventions or other reasons, is usually called as neointima. Neointimal hyperplasia is a main step in the pathogenesis of late-term restenosis, which is developed after vascular interventions. Reduction in nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling plays a substantial role in the pathogenesis of neointima formation. Phosphodiesterase V is detected in the peripheral coronary and pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells and in the cardiac tissue. Based on the effects of phosphodiesterase V inhibitors on vascular smooth muscle cells, in the present study, the effect of tadalafil, a new member of phosphodiesterase V inhibitors, on neointimal hyperplasia was investigated in the rabbit carotid artery anastomosis model.