N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase is a high molecular-weight lysosomal enzyme found in many tissues of the body. It cannot pass into glomerular ultrafiltrate due to its high molecular weight. However, this enzyme shows high activity in renal proximal tubular cells, and leaks into the tubular fluid as the ultrafiltrate passes through proximal tubules. When proximal tubular cells are injured due to to any disease process including glomerular proteinuria, nephrolithiasis, hyperglycemia, interstitial nephritis, transplant rejection or nephrotoxic agents, such as antibiotics, antiepileptics, or radiocontrast agents, its urine level increases and thus is used as a reflection of proximal tubular cell necrosis. However, the clinical use of urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase determination is limited in childhood because of certain technical problems. In addition, the urinary, level of this enzyme changes with the maturational level of proximal tubular cells. Thus, difficulties are involved in assessing normal urine levels of this enzyme for age. On the other hand, successive measurements of urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase during the longitudinal follow-up of the patients may enhance its clinical use as an indicator of ongoing tubular injury.