The Behavior of Double-Whyte Hollow Clay Brick Walls under Bidirectional Loads in R/C Frames


TEKNIK DERGI, vol.26, no.3, pp.7139-7165, 2015 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 26 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Journal Name: TEKNIK DERGI
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.7139-7165
  • Keywords: Reinforced concrete infilled frames, double-whyte wall, cyclic in-plane loading, simultaneous out-of-plane loading, experimental methods, earthquake engineering, SEISMIC DESIGN, LARGE-SCALE, MASONRY, PERFORMANCE
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, tests performed for three almost full scale reinforced concrete frames with two different imfill conditions, namely sandwich walls with and without Z-ties under bidirectional load imposed on the walls, and a bare frame under uni-directional in-plane load are presented and the experimental results are evaluated. Particular emphasis on the behavior of these types of walls is given regarding the following aspects: (i) as a function of in-plane damage levels, decrease in out-of-plane stiffness and (ii) due to the progressively increased in-plane damage, determining a lower bound out-of-plane strength limit. Contrary to the classical arching action observed under only out-of-plane loads, subjected to combined bi-directional action it is observed that damage on the walls appeared on the wall diagonals. Z-ties substantially improve the out-of-plane stability of the wall compared to the one without Z-ties, and help the wall to maintain its integrity up to higher inter-story drift levels. Based on these results, it is strongly suggested that certain constructive principles regarding ties used for double-whyte walls and damage limits for these type of walls should be introduced in earthquake and design codes.