Seasonal and spatial changes in water and sediment quality variables in Bafa Lake


Koçak F., Aydm-Onen S., Açık Çınar Ş., Kucuksezgin F.

ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, vol.76, no.17, 2017 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 76 Issue: 17
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12665-017-6950-9
  • Journal Name: ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Keywords: Brackish water, Lake, Water-sediment quality, Eutrophication, ORGANIC-MATTER, WESTERN ANATOLIA, NITROGEN, CARBON, NUTRIENT, COASTAL, ESTUARY, TURKEY, SEA, EUTROPHICATION
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

The brackish Bafa Lake located in the southwestern part of Turkey is under stress because of both natural and untreated wastewater effluents. The purpose of this research is to determine spatiotemporal distributions of some physicochemical variables in water column (temperature, salinity, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, NH4-N, NO2-N, NO3-N, oPO(4)-P, TPO4-P, chlorophyll-a, total suspended solids) and sediment (TN, TC, TOC, TP) and their relationships at coastal stations. In the water column, nitrate and phosphate concentrations showed seasonal variations with high values recorded in winter period. Ammonium was determined as a main source of TIN component. During summer period, a large amount of total phosphorus was found as dissolved organic form. However, in the winter period, inorganic phosphate levels increased at sampling stations. N limitation was a common feature throughout the lake where P-limitation was only observed in summer period. The total phosphorus levels which showed hypereutrophic condition at the western part of the lake changed between 1.55 and 4.99 mu M and did not remain in the range for uncontaminated condition. In the lake sediment, a strong relationship was found between TOC and TC levels. Generally, the mean TOC concentrations constitute small amount of TC values in the sampling stations. The results also indicated that a strong correlation exists between TOC and TN values, and TN was greatly regulated by organic sources. In the lake, TOC: TN ratios changed between 5 and 13; the ratio greater than 10 could be an indicator of algal and land plant sources mixing as an organic matter.