Exposure to an electromagnetic field (EMF) can have adverse effects on many organs and tissues, including the reproductive system. This study aimed to investigate the effects of EMF exposure during prenatal and postnatal periods on ovarian development in rat offspring. In this study, rat pups born from eight pregnant rats were used. EMF exposure was initiated on the first day of pregnancy and continued until the 42nd postnatal day. The blood and ovarian tissue samples of female offspring in sham and EMF groups were collected when they reached the age of 42 days. Follicle-stimulating hormone levels were significantly higher in the EMF group than in the sham group. Estradiol levels were significantly lower in the EMF group than in the sham group. Tissue-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels and expression were significantly greater in the EMF group than in the sham group. In the EMF group, congestion, bleeding areas, and degeneration of follicle structures were observed in ovarian tissue. The findings suggest that exposure to 50-Hz, 3-mT EMF used in this study during prenatal and postnatal periods may lead to impaired ovarian structure and function in female offspring. EMF may affect ovarian physiology by increasing iNOS levels and may lead to fertility disorders.