Mapping the spatial distribution of emissions from domestic shipping in Izmir Bay

Büber M., Töz A. C., Şakar C., Köseoğlu B.

OCEAN ENGINEERING, vol.210, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 210
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2020.107576
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, Environment Index, Geobase, ICONDA Bibliographic, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Geographic information system (GIS), Izmir bay, Ship emission, Bottom-up method, Domestic shipping, PORT, REGION, SEA
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


The purpose of this study is to determine the risky areas in terms of air pollution from domestic shipping in Izmir Bay with the integration of Geographic Information System (GIS) and emission evaluation methodology. To do this, initially, the emissions as a result of 435 trips of 19 ships engaged in domestic transportation in Izmir Bay were evaluated by the bottom-up method. The spatial distribution map was then compiled using the point density analysis through MapInfo v.16 software as a GIS instrument. The study revealed that annual emissions of PM10,CO2,NOx, SO2, and HC from domestic shipping were 601.5 t, 925.9 t, 62612.1 t, 22.0 t, and 61.2 t, respectively. In addition, the highest emissions as ton per daily trip were recorded in the cruising mode due to longer operation periods compared to the other modes. It was found that the lines between Pasaport, Alsancak and Karsiyaka piers are the most polluted routes due to dense ship traffic. Furthermore, Bostanli and Karsiyaka piers were determined as the points with the lowest air quality due to heavy traffic. We concluded that the ship emissions do not spread homogeneously throughout the region. In order to reduce the emissions in the area, the number of daily voyages and ship size should be optimized for passenger and vehicle density. The study also recommends installing emission monitoring stations at the piers to control air pollution.