Seroprevalence of Pertussis Toxin Antibody in Manisa Province of Turkey, After Six Years Implementation of Acellular Pertussis Vaccine

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Özbek Ö. A., Öktem İ. M. A., Hekimoglu C. H., Sekreter O., Emek M., Atasoylu G., ...More

MIKROBIYOLOJI BULTENI, vol.52, no.2, pp.180-189, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 52 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.5578/mb.57534
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED)
  • Page Numbers: pp.180-189
  • Keywords: Pertussis vaccine/immunology, seroepidemiologic studies, vaccination, whooping cough/prevention and control, social determinants
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Vaccination is the most effective way of preventing pertussis disease. Turkey commenced a routine infant immunization program using whole cell (wP) pertussis vaccine in 1968. Immunization accelerated in 1985 after participation of Turkey in the Expanded Programme on Immunization initiated by the World Health Organization. Acellular vaccine (aP) replaced wP in 2008 and a booster was added to age 6 in 2010. The immunization programme was successful in reducing the morbidity rate from 20.58 per 100.000 in 1970 to the lowest level of 0.01 per 100.000 in 2009. However, reduction of vaccine-induced protection and reduced natural boosting of circulating Bordetella pertussis are likely to increase the susceptibility of the population. As a result, morbidity rate increased from 0.09 per 100.000 to 0.41 per 100.000 in 2015 compared to the previous year. The aim of this epidemiological study was to determine the seroprevalence of pertussis toxin (PT) antibodies among healthy people and its association with various social determinants in Manisa province in Turkey, 6 years after aP replaced wP vaccine. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study with a sample of 1250 people that was randomly selected from the over 2 years of age population in Manisa in 2014. Seroprevalence of PT antibody was determined as the dependent variable of the study. Independent variables of the study were; gender, age, migration in the last 5 years, occupational class, perceived income, house ownership, number of people per room, annually per capita equivalent income. The presence of anti-PT IgG was detected by quantitatively using a commercially available ELISA kit. The antibody levels were categorized into groups according to pertussis infection or vaccination immune response status. The groups consisted of undetectable (< 5 IU/ml), mid-range (5-< 62.5 IU/ml: more than one year previously), high (62.5-< 125: with in 12 months) and very high (>= 125 IU/ml: with in 6 months) antibody levels. The test results with >= 5 IU/ml were defined as seropositive. Level > 100 IU/ml detected among adolescent and adult participants indicated acute or recently recovered pertussis infection. Chi-square test was used to evaluate association between social determinants and pertussis seropositivity. The seroprevalence of the whole study population was 58.1% (95% CI 55.32-60.79) and no association was found with any of the social determinants. The highest seroprevalence was found among 2-9 age group (68.3%) followed by 70-79 age group (63.5%). The lowest seroprevalence was found among 20-29 age group (50.9%) followed by 10-19 age group (51.6%). When seropositivity levels according to ages were compared, it was found that there was a decrease one year after the first vaccination at 2nd, 4th and 6th months and the booster at the 6th year, with a lowest rate (19%) in 11 year-old. The highest seropositivity (77.3%) with a level of >100 IU/ml (13.6%) were detected at age 15 among all adolescent and adult participants. Adding an adolescent booster to immunization schedule and recommendation of vaccine to elderly people should be considered to reduce the incidence of pertussis disease in Turkey.