Consumption of alcohol leads to oxidative stress in liver by inducing lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of carnosine CAR) in alcohol-induced liver injury by biochemical and histomorphological evaluations. The rats were divided into four groups, namely, control group, alcohol AL) group, CAR group and AL + CAR group. Three doses of ethanol 5 g/kg, 25% v/v) in distilled water) were given by nasogastric catheter for twice-a-day. CAR 100mg/kg) was given 1 h before the administration of ethanol using the same method. Levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde were significantly increased in the AL group compared with control, CAR and AL + CAR groups. Glutathione level was significantly decreased in the AL group, while it was increased in the AL + CAR group. Immunoreactivity of caspase-3 and bax increased in the hepatocytes of AL group when compared with control and AL + CAR groups. Expression of bcl-2 was decreased in AL group than AL + CAR group. Under electron microscopy, dense mitochondria, accumulation of lipid, sinusoidal dilatation, vacuolization and decrease in the number of microvilli were observed in AL group, while these findings were markedly less in the AL + CAR group. In conclusion, pretreatment of CAR is effective for recovering biochemical alterations and morphologic damage in the liver of rats treated with ethanol.