Swimming trajectories of chaetognaths Sagitta setosa Muller in the Black Sea were studied using an echosounder operating at 120 and 200 kHz and an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) operating at 150 kHz. S. setosa were acoustically discriminated with respect to vertical migration and swimming speed, according to dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and the timing of migrations. S. setosa formed a concentration layer thicker than Calanus euxinus did (1-3 m). The migration was completed in about 2.5-4 h, upward migration starting before C. euxinus and downward migration after C. euxinus. Adult Sagitta swam fast only in the well-oxygenated layer (subsurface maximum DO). The DO was found to be a significant (p < 0.05) variable by partial correlation between the speed and hydrographical parameters. This feature constituted an oxygen-dependent influence on S. setosa's vertical swimming and distinguished S. setosa from C. euxinus. Chaetognaths migrated daily between the nearsurface and the oxycline or the suboxic zone (OMZ, see Fig. 3b for the layers characterized by DO). Whether the deepest depth limit of migration was the oxycline or the OMZ depended on the relative abundance of adult and immature (young) individuals in the concentration layer. In July and September, individuals belonging to a new generation did not migrate but stayed in subsurface water day and night.